By A. Iomar. Bennington College.
Someone who is weak proven 100 mg viagra professional, tires easily purchase viagra professional 100mg mastercard, is often out of breath, and feels Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia faint or dizzy may be severely anemic. Other symptoms Less common in this country than folic acid anemia, of anemia are: vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is another type of mega- • angina pectoris (chest pain) loblastic anemia that develops when the body does not 80 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 absorb enough of this nutrient. The re- acids; in beta-thalassemia, there is an imbalance in the sulting drop in red blood cell production can cause: beta chain. Alpha-thalassemias most commonly affect • loss of muscle control blacks (25% have at least one gene); beta-thalassemias • loss of sensation in the legs, hands, and feet most commonly affect people of Mediterranean and • soreness or burning of the tongue Southeast Asian ancestry. Since most people who eat meat or eggs get enough B12 in their diets, a deficiency of this vitamin Autoimmune hemolytic anemia usually means that the body is not absorbing it properly. This can occur among people who have had intestinal Warm antibody hemolytic anemia is the most com- surgery or those who do not produce adequate amounts mon type of this disorder. This condition occurs when of intrinsic factor, a chemical secreted by the stomach the body produces autoantibodies that coat red blood lining that combines with B12 to help its absorption in the cells. Pernicious anemia can also damage the have warm antibody hemolytic anemia also have lym- spinal cord. A doctor should be notified whenever symp- phoma, leukemia, lupus, or connective tissue disease. In cold antibody hemolytic anemia, the body attacks Pernicious anemia usually strikes people 50–60 years red blood cells at or below normal body temperature. Eating disorders or an unbalanced diet increases The acute form of this condition frequently develops in the risk of developing pernicious anemia. So do diabetes people who have had pneumonia, mononucleosis,or mellitus, gastritis, stomach cancer, stomach surgery, thy- other acute infections. It tends to be mild and short- roid disease, and family history of pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia Chronic cold antibody hemolytic anemia is most common in women and most often affects those who are A rare disorder that causes the bone marrow to man- over 40 and have arthritis. This condition usually lasts ufacture abnormally small red blood cells, vitamin C de- for a lifetime, generally causing few symptoms. Howev- ficiency anemia results from a severe, long-standing di- er, exposure to cold temperatures can accelerate red etary deficiency. Some Sickle cell anemia acquire this condition, in which infection or antibodies Sickle cell anemia is a chronic, incurable condition destroy red blood cells more rapidly than bone marrow that causes the body to produce defective hemoglobin, can replace them. Unlike normal oval cells, fragile sickle cells erate the destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). When capillaries become obstructed, a life-threatening condition called sickle cell Thalassemias crisis is likely to occur. An inherited form of hemolytic anemia, thalassemia Sickle cell anemia is hereditary. A GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 81 child who inherits the sickle cell gene from each parent Many therapies for iron-deficiency anemia focus on will have the disease, but a child who inherits the gene adding iron-rich foods to the diet or on techniques to from only one parent will carry the sickle cell trait, but improve circulation and digestion. Some examples of iron-rich herbs are dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), parsley (Pet- Sometimes curable by bone marrow transplant, but roselinum crispum), and nettle (Urtica dioica). The potentially fatal, aplastic anemia is characterized by de- homeopathic remedy ferrum phosphoricum (iron sul- creased production of red and white blood cells and fate) can also be helpful. This disorder may be inherited or acquired as a result of An iron-rich herbal tonic can also be made using the recent severe illness, long-term exposure to industrial following recipe: chemicals, or use of anticancer drugs and certain other • Soak one-half ounce of yellow dock root and one-half medications. Anemia of chronic disease • Simmer until the amount of liquid is reduced to 1 cup. Cancer, chronic infection or inflammation, and kid- ney and liver disease often cause mild or moderate ane- • Remove from heat and add one-half cup black strap mia. Diagnosis Other herbal remedies known to promote digestion are prescribed to treat iron-deficiency anemia. Gentian Personal and family health history may suggest the (Gentiana lutea) is widely used in Europe to treat ane- presence of certain types of anemia. The bitter measure the percentage of red blood cells or the amount qualities of gentian help stimulate the digestive system, of hemoglobin in the blood are used to confirm diagnosis making iron and other nutrients more available for ab- and determine which type of anemia is responsible for a sorption. Other herbs recommended to promote digestion in- clude: Treatment • anise (Pimpinella anisum) Anyone who has anemia caused by poor nutrition should modify his or her diet to include more vitamins, • caraway (Carum carvi) minerals, and iron. Foods such as lean red meats, dried beans and fruits, liver, poultry, and enriched breads and • cumin (Cuminum cyminum) cereals are all good sources of iron. People with folic acid nia glutinosa) to clear a sallow complexion anemia should take oral folic acid replacements. Vitamin C deficiency anemia can be cured by taking daily sup- • astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus) to treat pallor plements of vitamin C. Transfusions of red blood cells It usually takes three to six weeks to correct folic may be used to accelerate production of red blood cells. Patients should continue Medication or surgery may also be necessary to con- taking supplements for another six months to replenish trol heavy menstrual flow, repair a bleeding ulcer, or re- iron reserves and should have periodic blood tests to move polyps (growths or nodules) from the bowels. However people with a severe form may re- quire periodic hospitalization for blood transfusions Pernicious anemia and/or bone marrow transplantation. Although pernicious anemia is considered incurable, Sickle cell anemia regular B12 shots will alleviate symptoms and reverse complications. Some symptoms will disappear almost as Treatment for sickle cell anemia involves regular soon as treatment begins.
This leads to radicular symptoms entirely confined to the respective dermatome or dermatomes order viagra professional 50 mg line. If the patient tolerates this initial step of the test viagra professional 100 mg on-line, it is then repeated with the cervical spine extended as well. Where facet joint irritation or nerve root compression is present, the examination will intensify the pain. Simultaneous extension of the cervical spine narrows the intervertebral foramina by 20–30%. Cervical Spine Distraction Test Differentiates between radicular pain in the back of the neck, shoulder, and arm and ligamentous or muscular pain in these regions. Assessment: Distraction of the cervical spine reduces the load on the intervertebral disks and exiting nerve roots within the affected levels or segments while producing a gliding motion in the facet joints. Reduc- tion of radicular symptoms, even in passive rotation, when the cervical spine is distracted is a sign of discogenic nerve root irritation. Increased pain during distraction and rotation suggests a functional impairment in the cervical spine due to muscular or ligamentous pathology or articu- lar, possibly degenerative processes. Assessment: Provocation of radicular symptoms is a sign of adhesion of the dural sac and/or a nerve root. Circumscribed pain on the side of the stretched musculature indicates increased muscle tone in the ster- nocleidomastoid or trapezius. Decreased muscular pain in the side that is not stretched suggests a pulled muscle or a functional impairment involving shortening of the musculature. Test of Maximum Compression of the Intervertebral Foramina Procedure: The seated patient actively rotates his or her head to one side while slightly extending the neck. Assessment: This pattern of motion leads to compression of the inter- vertebral foramina with narrowing of the intervertebral spaces and irritation of the nerve roots with corresponding radicular pain symp- toms. Occurrence of local pain without distal radicular symptoms in the dermatome concerned will be attributable to facet joint dysfunction. Pain reported in the contralateral side will be caused by stretching of the musculature. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. In maximum lateral bending, the examiner presses down on the head to exert axial pressure on the spine. Assessment: The axial loading results in increased compression of the intervertebral disks, exiting nerve roots, and facet joints. Pressure on the intervertebral foramina acts on the facet joints to elicit distal pain that does not exactly follow identifiable segmental dermatomes. Local circum- scribed pain will be attributable to stretching of the contralateral mus- culature of the neck. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Assessment: Compression of the intervertebral disks and exiting nerve roots, the facet joints, and/or the intervertebral foramina increases a radicular, strictly segmental pattern of symptoms. The presence of diffuse symptoms that are not clearly specific to any one segment may be regarded as a sign of ligamentous or articular functional impair- ment (facet joint pathology). Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. In the presence of a posterolateral disk extrusion, this maneuver will press the extruded portion of the disk in a posterior direction, resulting in increasing compression of the nerve root. An increase in radicular symptoms can therefore indicate the presence of a postero- lateral disk extrusion. The forward tilting of the head usually reduces the load on the facet joints and can reduce pain due to degenerative changes. Extension Compression Test Procedure: The patient is seated and the examiner stands behind the patient. Where a posterolateral extrusion with an intact annulus fibrosus is present, shifting the pressure on the disks anteriorly will reduce symp- toms. Increased pain without radicular symptoms usually indicates an irritation in the facet joints as a result of decreased mobility due to degenerative changes. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Tests Adams Forward Bend Test Assesses structural or functional scoliosis. Assessment: This test is performed in patients with detectable scolio- sis of uncertain etiology or as a screening examination in patients with a family history of scoliotic posture. If the scoliotic posture improves during forward bending, then the condition is a functional scoliosis; where the scoliotic deformity remains with the same projection of the ribs and the lumbar distortion observed in upright posture, the con- dition is true scoliosis with structural changes. Kyphosis Test on Hands and Knees Procedure: The patient is asked to kneel down and stretch out his or her arms as far forward as possible on the floor. Assessment: This posture will correct a flexible kyphotic deformity of the thoracic spine. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. A similar technique can also be used to evaluate segmental function in the lumbar spine.
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