By O. Nefarius. University of North Carolina at Wilmington.
K Tatsch purchase 20mg cialis super active with mastercard, J Schwarz cheap 20 mg cialis super active amex, P Mosley, R Linker, O Poglarell, W Oertel, R Fieber, K Hahn, H Kung. Relationship between clinical features of Parkinson’s disease and presynaptic dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I]IPT and single-photon emission tomography. Evaluation of early- stage Parkinson’s disease with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 imaging. S Lehericy, JP Brandel, EC Hirsch, P Anglade, J Villares, D Scherman, C Duyckaerts, F Javoy-Agid, Y Agid. Monoamine vesicular uptake sites in patients with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, as measured by tritiated dihydrotetrabenazine autoradiography. Severe depletion of cocaine recognition sites associated with the dopamine transporter in Parkinson’s diseased striatum. The dopamine transporter is absent in Parkinsonian putamen and reduced in the caudate nucleus. Dopaminergic dysfunction in parkinsonism: new lessons from imaging. KA Frey, RA Koeppe, MR Kilbourn, Imaging the vesicular monoamine transporter. Positron emission tomography studies in movement disorders. CH van Dyck, JP Seibyl, RT Malison, M Laruelle, SS Zoghbi, RM Baldwin, RB Innis. Age-related decline in dopamine transporters: analysis of striatal subregions, nonlinear effects, and hemispheric asymmetries. BD Pate, T Kawamata, T Yamada, EG McGeer, KA Hewitt, BJ Snow, TJ Ruth, DB Calne. Correlation of striatal ﬂuorodopa uptake in the MPTP monkey with dopaminergic indices. The role of vesicular transport proteins in synaptic transmission and neural degeneration. T Vander Borght, M Kilbourn, T Desmond, D Kuhl, K Frey. The vesicular monoamine transporter is not regulated by dopaminergic drug treatments. Rapid and differential losses of in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) radioligand binding in MPTP-treated mice. E Bezard, S Dovero, C Prunier, P Ravenscroft, S Chalon, D Guilloteau, AR Crossman, B Bioulac, JM Brotchie, CE Gross. Relationship between the appearance of symptoms and the level of nigrostriatal degeneration in a progressive 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson’s disease. JD Elsworth, MS al-Tikriti, JR Sladek, JR Taylor, RB Innis, D. Novel radioligands for the dopamine transporter demonstrate the presence of intrastriatal nigral grafts in the MPTP-treated monkey: correlation with improved behavioral function. J Boja, A Patel, F Carroll, M Rahman, A Philip, A Lewin, T Kopajitic, M Kuhan. A Brouard, D Pelaprat, JW Boja, FI Carroll, M Vial, MJ Kuhar, W Rostene. Potent cocaine analogs inhibit [3H]dopamine uptake in rat mesencephalic cells in primary cultures: pharmacological selectivity of embryonic cocaine sites. Localization and quantiﬁcation of the dopamine transporter: comparison of [3H]WIN 35,428 and [125I]RTI-55. M Fujita, S Shimada, K Fukuchi, M Tohyama, T Nishimura. Distribution of cocaine recognition sites in rat brain: in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography with [125I]RTI-55. Visualizing dopamine and serotonin transporters in the human brain with the potent cocaine analogue [125I]RTI-55: in vitro binding and autoradiographic characterization. ND Volkow, SJ Gatley, JS Fowler, R Chen, J Logan, SL Dewey, YS Ding, N Pappas, P King, RR MacGregor, et al. Long-lasting inhibition of in vivo cocaine binding to dopamine transporters by 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2- carboxylic acid methyl ester: RTI-55 or beta CIT. A Abi-Dargham, MS Gandelman, GA DeErausquin, Y Zea-Ponce, SS Zoghbi, RM Baldwin, M Laruelle, DS Charney, PB Hoffer, JL Neumeyer, RB Innis. SPECT imaging of dopamine transporters in human brain with iodine- 123-ﬂuoroalkyl analogs of beta-CIT. M Laruelle, E Wallace, JP Seibyl, RM Baldwin, Y Zea-Ponce, SS Zoghbi, JL Neumeyer, DS Charney, PB Hoffer, RB Innis. Graphical, kinetic, and equilibrium analyses of in vivo [123I] beta-CIT binding to dopamine transporters in healthy human subjects. Within-subject comparison of [123IFP- CIT and [123I]B-CIT for SPECT imaging of dopamine transporters in Parkinson’s disease. MP Kung, DA Stevenson, K Plossl, SK Meegalla, A Beckwith, WD Essman, M Mu, I Lucki, HF Kung. JJ Frost, AJ Rosier, SG Reich, JS Smith, MD Ehlers, SH Snyder, HT Ravert, RF Dannals. Positron emission tomography imaging of the dopamine transporter with 11C WIN 35,428 reveals marked decline in mild Parkinson’s disease. JO Rinne, A Laihinen, K Nagren, H Ruottinen, U Ruotsalainen, UK Rinne. PET examination of the monoamine transporter with [11C]beta-CIT and [11C]beta-CFT in early Parkinson’s disease. G Rosati, E Granieri, L Pinna, I Aiello, R Tola, P De Bastiani, A Pirisi, MC Devoto.
Phosphorylated phosphorylase kinase phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase cheap cialis super active 20 mg without prescription. Phos- such as Di Abietes discount cialis super active 20mg, who have a deficiency of phorylated glycogen phosphorylase catalyzes the phosphorolysis of glycogen, producing glu- insulin, have an increase in lipolysis and a cose 1-phosphate. These events occur during fasting and produce glucose to maintain a rela- subsequent increase in the concentration of tively constant level of blood glucose. The liver, in turn, uses some of these fatty acids to syn- thesize triacylglycerols, which then are used because acetyl CoA carboxylase is inactive, malonyl CoA levels are low, and CPTI in the hepatic production of VLDL. VLDL is (carnitine:acyltransferase I) is active (see Fig. Acetyl CoA, produced by - not stored in the liver but is secreted into the oxidation, is converted to ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are used as an energy source blood, raising its serum concentration. Her hypertriglyc- of acetyl CoA in the liver (derived from fat oxidation) inhibit pyruvate dehydroge- eridemia is the result, therefore, of both nase (which prevents pyruvate from being converted to acetyl CoA) and activate overproduction of VLDL by the liver and pyruvate carboxylase, which produces oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis. The decreased breakdown of VLDL triacylglyc- oxaloacetate does not condense with acetyl CoA to form citrate for two reasons. The serum begins to appear cloudy when The first is that under these conditions (a high rate of fat oxidation in the liver mito- the triacylglycerol level reaches 200 mg/dL. The high NADH level inhibits isocitrate dehy- ther, the degree of serum opalescence drogenase. As a result, citrate accumulates and inhibits citrate synthase from pro- increases proportionately. The second reason that citrate synthesis is depressed is that the CHAPTER 36 / INTEGRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPID METABOLISM 675 Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Glucose glucokinase glucose 6–phosphatase (high Km) Glucose 6–phosphate Fructose 6–phosphate F–2,6–P phosphofructokinase-1 fructose 1,6–bisphosphatase + – Fructose 1,6–bisphosphate Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde phosphate 3–phosphate Phosphoenolpyruvate phosphoenolpyruvate + cAMP carboxykinase pyruvate pyruvate kinase– P kinase Oxaloacetate (inactive) (active) pyruvate carboxylase Acetyl CoA+ P Pyruvate i Fig. Regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis during fasting. The gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase are induced. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is also active because, during fast- ing, the level of its inhibitor, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, is low. The corresponding enzymes of glycolysis are not very active during fasting. The rate of glucokinase is low because it has a high Km for glucose and the glucose concentration is low. Phosphofructokinase-1 is not very active because the concentration of its activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is low. Pyru- vate kinase is inactivated by cAMP-mediated phosphorylation. Fuel Utilization by Various Tissues during Starvation (Fasting) Tissue Glucose Fatty Acids Ketone Bodies Nervous system Skeletal muscle Heart muscle Liver Intestinal epithelial cells Kidney 676 SECTION SIX / LIPID METABOLISM Fasted state hormone sensitive lipase TG (inactive) Blood protein kinase hormone + sensitive cAMP lipase– P (active) + Low insulin/high glucagon ATP FA FA other FA FA lipases FA FA Glycerol Glycerol Adipose cell Fig. Regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipose tissue. During fasting, the glucagon/insulin ratio rises, causing cAMP levels to be elevated. Protein kinase A is acti- vated and phosphorylates HSL, activating this enzyme. HSL-P initiates the mobilization of adipose triacylglycerol by removing a fatty acid (FA). Other lipases then act, producing fatty acids and glycerol. Insulin stimulates the phosphatase that inactivates HSL in the fed state. Regulation of the Use of Glucose and Fatty Acids by Muscle During exercise, the fuel that is used initially by muscle cells is muscle glycogen. As exercise continues and the blood supply to the tissue increases, glucose is taken up from the blood and oxidized. Liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis replenish the blood glucose supply. However, as insulin levels drop, the concentration of GLUT4 transporters in the membrane is reduced, thereby reducing glucose entry from the cir- Muscle GLUT4 transporters also culation into the muscle. Thus, if produces NADH and acetyl CoA, which slow the flow of carbon from glucose energy levels are very low, and AMP levels through the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase (see Fig. Thus, the increase, glucose can still be transported oxidation of fatty acids provides a major portion of the increased demand for ATP from the circulation into the muscle to pro- generation and spares blood glucose. THE IMPORTANCE OF AMP AND FRUCTOSE 2,6-BISPHOSPHATE The switch between catabolic and anabolic pathways is often regulated by the lev- els of AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in cells, particularly the liver. As a cell uses ATP in energy-requiring path- ways, the levels of AMP accumulate more rapidly than that of ADP because of the adenylate kinase reaction (2 ADP S ATP and AMP). The rise in AMP levels then signals that more energy is required (usually through allosteric binding sites on enzymes and the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase), and the cell will switch to the activation of catabolic pathways. As AMP levels drop, and ATP levels rise, the anabolic pathways are now activated to store the excess energy. CHAPTER 36 / INTEGRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPID METABOLISM 677 The levels of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate are also critical in regulating glycolysis versus gluconeogenesis in the liver. Under conditions of high blood glucose, and insulin release, fructose 2,6 bisphosphate levels will be high because PFK-2 will be in its activated state. The fructose 2,6 bisphosphate activates PFK-1, and inhibits fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase, thereby allowing glycolysis to proceed.
Di Abietes has type 1 diabetes mellitus (formerly ranges and the diagnostic level are defined called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus order 20mg cialis super active overnight delivery, IDDM) order 20mg cialis super active with visa. She main- relative to the time of consumption of food, or tains her insulin level through two daily subcutaneous (under the skin) to consumption of a specified amount of glu- cose during an oral glucose tolerance test. If her blood insulin levels fall too low, free fatty acids leave her After an overnight fast, values for the fasting adipocytes (fat cells) and are converted by the liver to the ketone bodies acetoacetic plasma glucose below 110 mg/dL are consid- acid and -hydroxybutyric acid. As these acids accumulate in the blood, a metabolic ered normal and above 126 mg/dL define dia- acidosis known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) develops. Fasting plasma glucose values tered to reverse this trend, several compensatory mechanisms operate to minimize greater or equal to 110 and less than 126 the extent of the acidosis. One of these mechanisms is a stimulation of the respira- mg/dL define an intermediate condition tory center in the hypothalamus induced by the acidosis, which leads to deeper and termed impaired fasting glucose. Normal more frequent respiration (Kussmaul’s respiration). CO is expired more rapidly 2 casual plasma glucose levels (casual is than normal, and the blood pH rises. The results of the laboratory studies performed defined as any time of day without regard to on Di Abietes in the emergency room were consistent with a moderately severe the time since a last meal) should not be DKA. Her arterial blood pH and serum bicarbonate were low, and ketone bodies above 200 mg/dL. A 2-hour postprandial (after a meal or after an oral glucose load) plasma were present in her blood and urine (normally, ketone bodies are not present in the glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL urine). In addition, her serum glucose level was 648 mg/dL (reference range defines a condition known as impaired glu- 80 110 fasting and no higher than 200 in a random glucose sample). A level above 200 mg/dL glycemia, which induces an osmotic diuresis, contributed to her dehydration and the defines “overt” diabetes mellitus. CHAPTER 4 / WATER, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS 51 Treatment was initiated with intravenous saline solutions to replace fluids lost The pKa for dissociation of ammo- with the osmotic diuresis and hyperventilation. Thus, the undis- increased urinary water volume to dilute the large amounts of glucose and ketone sociated conjugate acid form, NH , predominates at the physiologic pH of bodies excreted in the urine. Hyperventilation increased the water of respiration lost 4 7. A loading dose of regular insulin was given as an intravenous bolus an unusual conjugate base because it is not followed by additional insulin each hour as needed. While awaiting the report of his initial serum salicylate level, his stomach was lavaged, and several white tablets were found in the stomach aspirate. He was examined repeatedly and showed none of the early symptoms of salicylate toxicity, such as respiratory stimulation, upper abdominal distress, nausea, or headache. His serum salicylate level was reported as 92 g/mL (the usual level in an adult receiving a therapeutic dosage of 4 5 g/day is 120 350 g/mL, and a level of 800 g/mL is considered potentially lethal). He was admitted for overnight observation and continued to do well. A serum salicylate level the following morning was 24 g/mL. Veere complained of light- Water gain headedness and “pins and needles” (paresthesias) in his hands and around his lips. These symptoms resulted from an increase in respiratory drive mediated in this case through the “behavioral” rather than the “metabolic” central respiratory control system (as seen in Di Abietes when she was in dia- Fluids betic ketoacidosis). Veere’s case by 1500 mL his anxiety over his grandson’s potential poisoning. Veere’s PaCO2 to decrease below the normal range of 37 to 43 mm Hg. After being reassured Solid food Fuel metabolism 800 mL 400 mL that his grandson would be fine, Mr. Veere was asked to breathe slowly into a small paper bag placed around his nose and mouth, allowing him to reinhale the CO2 being exhaled through hyperventilation. Water loss Expired air BIOCHEMICAL COMMENTS 400 mL Evaporation Body water and dehydration. Dehydration, or loss of water, occurs and sweat when salt and water intake is less than the combined rates of renal plus 600 mL extrarenal volume loss (Fig. In a true hypovolemic state, total body water, functional ECF volume, and ICF volume are decreased. One of the causes of Urine Feces hypovolemia is an intake of water that is inadequate to resupply the daily excretion vol- 1500 mL 100 mL ume (maintenance of fluid homeostasis). The amount of water lost by the kidneys is determined by the amount of water necessary to dilute the ions, acids, and other solutes excreted. Both urinary solute excretion and water loss in expired air, which amount to Fig. Body fluid homeostasis (constant almost 400 mL/day, occur during fasting as well as during periods of normal food body water balance). Thus, people who are lost in the desert or shipwrecked continue to lose water availability of fluids and food, thirst, hunger, in air and urine, in addition to their water loss through the skin and sweat glands. The rates of breath- ing and evaporation and urinary volume influ- Comatose patients and patients who are debilitated and unable to swallow also con- ence water loss. The body adjusts the volume tinue to lose water and become dehydrated. Dysphagia (loss of appetite), such as Percy of urinary excretion to compensate for varia- Veere experienced during his depression (see Chapters 1 and 3), can result in dehy- tions in other types of water loss and for varia- dration because food intake is normally a source of fluid. The hormones aldosterone and a loss of thirst also can lead to dehydration. Excessive renal loss could be the result of impaired kidney nisms regulating thirst and sodium and water function, or impaired response by the hormones that regulate water balance (e.
The degree of knee flexion is modulated mainly by the hamstrings purchase 20 mg cialis super active visa, and in children with CP order cialis super active 20 mg with mastercard, full knee extension at initial contact usually is the result of overlengthening of the hamstrings. Full knee extension at initial contact is also seen in chil- dren with hypotonia and ataxia. Increased knee flexion at foot contact is much more common. This in- creased flexion helps shock absorption; however, this is often associated with plantar flexion and toe strike, which places an immediate strong external ex- tension moment on the knee that the hamstrings have to resist. During weight acceptance, there tend to be two patterns of knee motion; one is immediate extension from initial contact position and the other is increased knee flexion, which may occur because of eccentric gastrocsoleus contraction, weak gas- trocnemius, or a poor moment arm of the foot. The amount of knee flexion during weight acceptance should be 10° to 20° if it is normally controlled by the gastrocnemius and soleus eccentric contraction. Gait 323 ion is more than 20°, it is likely due to weakness of the gastrocsoleus or an insufficient moment arm at the foot. As the gait cycle proceeds to midstance, if there was knee flexion during weight acceptance, knee extension should now begin. If the knee flexion continues into midstance, then a crouched gait pattern is present (Case 7. The primary causes of increased knee flexion in midstance are knee flexion contractures, hamstring contractures, a deficient foot moment arm, and gas- trocsoleus weakness (Figure 7. A secondary etiology may be significant hip flexion contracture, which can limit knee extension in midstance. Often, there are several causes of increased knee flexion in midstance and all pri- mary and secondary causes should be identified. This identification involves considering the actual magnitude of the flexion by evaluating the knee ex- tension in midstance on the kinematic evaluation, the ankle moment in mid- stance, and the knee moment in midstance. If the ankle moment is normal or below normal, and the knee flexion is not increased, then the ankle weak- ness and foot moment arm are the most likely causes. If the kinematics show the knee extending to the limits of the fixed knee flexion contracture measured on physical examination, then the knee joint contracture is a likely cause. If the ankle has a high plantar flexion moment and the knee has a high flexion moment, it is likely a combination of contracture of the gastrocnemius and the hamstrings. If the hip extension peak occurs early, is decreased, and the physical examination shows a significant hip flexion contracture, then hip flexion contracture may also be contributing to the midstance phase knee flexion deformity. If children use ambulatory aids such as crutches and the hamstring muscles are not really contracted, there is a tendency for them to fall into back-kneeing, both when the gastrocsoleus is overactive, and when it is too weak. If children are independent ambulators or have overactive hamstrings, they will be strongly drawn to a crouched gait pattern. If chil- dren are very strong and have high tone, they will be drawn to keep the knees stiff and vault in midstance phase. This vault action raises the body and in- creases the energy cost of walking; however, it has the benefit of allowing the contralateral leg to clear the floor during swing. Also, by raising the body in midstance, the body can then fall forward in terminal stance so forward mo- mentum can be used at initial contact and the contralateral limb can use the gluteus to lift the body back up again (Figure 7. The back-kneeing position in midstance phase is an especially difficult problem to address. This position has been shown to follow three patterns, with one pattern having predominantly overactive gastrocsoleus muscles, the second having the HAT segment center of gravity move anterior to the knee often in the face of a weak gastrocnemius, and the third having the HAT center of gravity moving posterior to the hip but anterior to the knee. If dorsiflexion with knee extension is possible, children should be placed in an orthosis that allows 3° to 5° of dorsiflexion while limiting plantar flexion to minus 5°. If there is a pattern in which the ground reaction force is moving either significantly in front or behind the knee in the face of a weak gastrocsoleus, a solid ankle AFO should be used to assist the gastrocsoleus in ankle control. Back-kneeing that is especially difficult to control is that which is present in children who use walkers or crutches, be- cause the center of mass of the HAT segment can be so far forward that when they are placed in AFOs, the toes of the shoes and AFOs will just rise with all the weight being borne on the heel. This persistent back-kneeing in spite of appropriate orthotics in children with assistive devices may cause progressive back-kneeing because of increasing knee hyperextension and the development 324 Cerebral Palsy Management Case 7. Over the next walked independently without the use of his walker. His 3 years, his father, who was very enthused about the boy’s parents complained that he fell a lot and had trouble ambulatory ability, successfully petitioned the court to stopping without falling at the end of a walk. Michael get custody from the mother, who felt ambulation was appeared to be age-appropriate cognitively and had sig- hopeless. This change in homes greatly lifted the boy’s nificant spasticity in the lower extremities. He also had spirits, and in spite of not being able to stand to transfer some increased tone in the upper extremities and poor himself by age 14 years, he was enthused about trying to hand coordination. His gait demonstrated toe walking get back to walking. By this time he had severe crouch with mild knee flexion in stance phase and significant stance posture, severe planovalgus feet, knee flexion con- internal rotation of the hips. After a full evaluation, he tractures, and hamstring contractures (Figures C7. At this time, Michael was doing well academi- tation osteotomies, distal hamstring lengthening, and gas- cally in a regular school. He underwent bilateral plano- trocnemius lengthening.
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